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超導量子計算在強關聯糾纏體系的量子隨機行走實驗研究中取得進展

文章來源:中國科學技術大學   發布時間:2019-05-05  【字號:     】  

  中國科學技術大學潘建偉、朱曉波和彭承志等組成的超導量子實驗團隊,聯合中國科學院物理研究所范桁等理論小組,開創性地將超導量子比特應用到量子隨機行走的研究中。該工作將對未來多體物理現象的模擬以及利用量子隨機行走進行通用量子計算研究產生重要影響。這一研究成果于5月2日在線發表在國際學術期刊《科學》上。

  量子隨機行走是經典隨機行走在量子力學中的拓展,區別于經典隨機行走,量子隨機行走利用量子疊加態的特性,粒子在格點中游走特性需要用量子力學的波函數統計規律來詮釋。量子隨機游走本身可以模擬多體物理體系的量子行為,并且理論上最終可用于通用量子計算,因而引發了高度關注。

  超導量子計算作為量子計算最有前景的方案之一,受到各國政府的高度關注,也得到了包括GoogleIBMIntel、騰訊、阿里巴巴等在內的各大型公司的直接投入。超導量子計算作為固態量子計算方案,其內在的優勢就在于其工藝上就具有良好的可擴展性。然而在不斷集成更多的量子比特的同時,如何保證所有量子比特的質量是目前最大的挑戰。

  近兩年來,雖有報道IBMGoogle等公司的超導量子計算研究團隊分別研發了50比特及72比特的超導量子處理器,但是至今仍未能有完整的公開數據表明其處理器的質量,在最大糾纏比特數目這一標定多量子比特計算系統的關鍵指標上也沒有結果發表。潘建偉及其同事朱曉波、陸朝陽、彭承志等人通過設計和加工了高品質的12比特一維鏈超導比特處理器,成功實現了12個超導量子比特的多體真糾纏態“簇態”的制備。這個新的工作打破了此前由中國科大、浙江大學、物理所聯合研究組創造的10個超導量子比特糾纏的記錄。尤其重要的是,中國科大小組生成糾纏的方式是由標準的量子比特門搭建而成,不同于先前的集體共振耦合,根本上具有更好的可擴展性。這一記錄也是目前固態量子系統內最大的多體真糾纏比特數目。相關成果以“編輯推薦”的形式近期發表于《物理評論快報》。

  正是基于自主研制的高質量的超導量子計算系統,研究團隊首次在固態量子計算系統中實驗演示了強關聯糾纏體系的量子隨機游走。研究團隊研究了單粒子及雙粒子激發下一維短程耦合的量子隨機行走,觀察到了高保真度的態、糾纏度及關聯函數在時空光錐中的含時演化。此外,實驗上首次觀察到了由于邊界反射及波函數干涉形成的次級糾纏波陣面的傳播行為。在引入雙粒子激發的情況下,實驗上觀測到了由時間依賴的長程反相關的強關聯光子形成的費米子化行為,描繪出光子的反聚束行為。該工作首次利用人工量子比特進行光子反聚束行為的模擬,為未來利用量子隨機行走進行多體物理現象的模擬以及通用量子計算研究打下了基礎。

  朱曉波是負責該項工作實驗部分的通訊作者,范桁是負責理論部分的通訊作者。閆智廣(中國科大)、張煜然(北京計算科學中心/物理所)和龔明(中國科大)是文章的共同第一作者。

  上述工作得到科技部、中科院、國家自然科學基金委、安徽省和上海市等的資助。

  論文鏈接:1 2

 

  圖1:單光子在11個一維鏈超導量子比特中的隨機游走。A/D、B/E、C/F分別為從中間位置、最左端及最右端開始激發量子比特并進行隨機游走。實驗上清晰地觀察到了激發在邊緣的反射形成的回波,與理論吻合。(圖來自《科學》文章正文)

 

    圖2:雙光子在12個量子比特中的隨機游走。AB分別展示了激發中間位置及邊緣位置兩個量子比特后的隨機游走行為。C-H展示了隨著時間演化,二階關聯與量子比特運動方向的關系,展示了強關聯光子的費米子化行為。(圖來自《科學》文章正文)




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